Strabismus - selected studies

Duckman, RH. Management of binocular anomalies: efficacy of vision therapy, exotropia. American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics.1987;  64 (6) 421-429. DOWNLOAD

Barry, Susan R.  The work and wisdom of Frederick W. Brock. Journal of Behavioural Optometry. 2011 22(3): 59-63. DOWNLOAD

Coffey B. et al. Treatment options in intermittent exotropia: a critical appraisal. Optometry & Vision Science. 69 (5): 386-404. DOWNLOAD

 Flax N. & Selenow A. Results of Surgical Treatment of Intermittent Divergent Strabismus. Am J Optom & Phys Op. 1985 62(2): 100-104. DOWNLOAD.

Flax, N. The treatment of strabismus in the four to ten year-old child. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. 1993 October (10)5: 411-416.  DOWNLOAD

Garriott RS., et al. Role of optometric vision therapy for surgically treated strabismus patients. Optometry & Vision Science 1997 74(4): 179-184. DOWNLOAD.

Hoffman L. et al. Effectiveness of optometry vision therapy for strabismus in a private practice. Am J Optom Arch Am Optom. 1970 December. DOWNLOAD.

Ludlam, WM. Orthoptic treatment of strabismus. A study of one hundred forty nine non-operated, unselected, concomitant strabismus patients completing orthoptic training at the Optometric Center of New York. Am J Optom Arch Am Optom. 1961 July; 38:369-88.DOWNLOAD.

Ludlam, WM. The long rage results of orthoptic treatment of strabismus. Am J Oprom Arch Am Optom.1965 November; (42)11: 347-684. DOWNLOAD.

Maino D. The number of placebo controlled, double blind, prospective, and randomized strabismus surgery outcome clinical trials: none! Optom Vis Dev 2011;42(3):134-136.DOWNLOAD.

Peddle A. et al. Vision therapy for basic exotropia in adults: two case studies. Optometry - Journal of the American Optometric Association. 2011 Vol. 82, Issue 8, Pages 467-474. DOWNLOAD.

Risks of strabismus surgery - selected studies

Allison, CE, at al. A Comparison of the Incidence of the oculocardiac and Oculorespiratory Reflexes During Sevoflurane or Halothane Anesthesia for Strabismus Surgery in Children. Anesth Analg 2000;90:306 –310. DOWNLOAD.

Sprung J., et al. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder After Early Exposure to Procedures Requiring General Anesthesia. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012;87(2):120-129. DOWNLOAD.

Lew, H. et al. Binocular Photophobia After Surgical Treatment in Intermittent Exotropia.Optometry and Vision Science, Vol. 84, No. 12, December 2007. DOWNLOAD.

Hoyama, E., et al. Blinding Orbital Cellulitis: A Complication of Strabismus Surgery. Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Vol. 22, No. 6, pp 472–499. Abstract

Flick, R., et al. Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes After Early Exposure to Anesthesia and Surgery. Pediatrics. Volume 128, Number 5, November 2011. DOWNLOAD.

Simon, J.W., Complications of strabismus surgery.Current Opinion in Ophthalmology 2010, 21:361–366. DOWNLOAD.

Awadein A, Sharma M, Bazemore MG, et al. Adjustable suture strabismus surgery in infants and children. J AAPOS 2008; 12:585–590. DOWNLOAD.

Pediatric Cardiac Arrest in Strabismus Surgery. JAMA, July 5, 1971. DOWNLOAD.

Tramer, M.R., Morre, R.A., et al. Propofol and Bradycardia: Causation, Frequency and Severity. Brithish Journal of Anaesthesia 1997; 78: 642-651. DOWNLOAD.

Noel, L., Retinal Complications of Strabismus Surgery, Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 1998, 9:III:56-58. DOWNLOAD.

Arndt GAStock MC.Bradycardia during cold ocular irrigation under general anaesthesia: an example of the diving reflex.Can J Anaesth. 1993 Jun;40(6):511-4. ABSTRACT.

Lang SA, Van der Wal M. Death from the oculocardiac reflex (Letter). Can J Anaesth 1994; 41:161

Sorenson EJ, gilmore JE. Cardiac arrest during strabismus surgery. Am J Opththalmol 1956; 41:748-52.

Kirsch RE, Samet P, Kugel V, Axelrod S. Electrocardiographic changes during ocular surgery and their prevention by retrobulbar injection. AMA Archives of Ophthalmolgy1957; 58:348-56.

Bietti GB. Problems of anesthesia in strabismus surgery. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 1966; 6: 727-37.

Flax, N. Selenow, K. Results of Surgical Treatment of Intermittent Divergent Strabismus.American Journal of Optometry & Physiological Optics. 1985 V.62:2, 100-104. DOWNLOAD.

Coats, D.K. Strabismus Surgery Complications. International Ophthalmology Clinics.2010. 50:125-135. DOWNLOAD.

Min, S.W, Hwang, J.M., The incidence of asystole in patients undergoing strabismus surgery. Eye 2009. 23: 864-866. DOWNLOAD.
Learning & Reading - selected studies

Dusek et al. A survey of visual function in an Austrian population of school-age chidren with reading and writing difficulties. BMC Ophthalmology. 2010; 10(16). DOWNLOAD.

Goldstand et al. Vision, visual-information processing, and academic performance among seventh-grade schoolchildren: a more significant relationship than we thought? The American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 59: 377-389. DOWNLOAD.

Grisham et al. Visual skills of poor readers in high school. Optometry. 2007; 78:542-549. DOWNLOAD.

Jorge et al. Binocular vision changes in university students: a 3-year longitudinal study. Optometry and Vision Science. 2008; 85(10): E999-E1006. DOWNLOAD.

Kulp et al. Is visual memory predictive of below -average academic achievement in second through fourth graders? Optometry and Vision Science. 2002; 79(7): 431-434. DOWNLOAD.

Porcar et al. Prevalence of general binocular dysfunctions in a pupulation of university students. Optometry and Vision Science. 1997; 74(2): 111-113. DOWNLOAD.

Borsting E. et al. Improvement in Academic Behaviors After Successful Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency Optometry & Vision Science. January 2012 - Volume 89 - Issue 1 - pp 12-18 ABSTRACTPRESS RELEASE

Bonilla-Warford N, Allison C. A review of the efficacy of oculomotor vision therapy in improving reading skills. J Optom Vis Dev. 2004;35(2):108–115.DOWNLOAD.

Helms D, Sawtelle SM. A study of the effectiveness of cognitive therapy delivered in a video game format. Optom Vis Dev 2007;38(1):19-26. DOWNLOAD.

Rouse M. Academic Behaviors in Children with Convergence Insufficiency with and without Parent-Reported ADHD Optometry And Vision Science, VOL. 86, NO. 10, PP. 1169–1177. DOWNLOAD.

Sortor, J. Kulp, MT. Are the Results of the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and Its Subtests Related to Achievement Test Scores?Optometry And Vision Science. VOL. 80, NO. 11, PP. 758–763. DOWNLOAD

Okumura T., Laukkanen H., Tamai H. Computerized Saccadic Eye Movement Therapy to Improve Oculomotor Control during Reading and Reading Rate in Adult Japanese Readers.Opt Vis Dev 2008: 39(4):191-197. DOWNLOAD.

Fischer B, Köngeter A, Hartnegg K. Effects of Daily Practice on Subitizing, Visual Counting, and Basic Arithmetic Skills. Optom Vis Dev 2008:39(1):30-34. DOWNLOAD.

Lawton, T. Filtered Text and Direction Discrimination Training Improved Reading Fluency for Both Dyslexic and Normal Readers. Optom Vis Dev 2008;39 (3):114. DOWNLOAD.

Fischer B, Hartnegg K. Instability of fixation in dyslexia: development – deficits – training. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(4):221-228. DOWNLOAD.

Maino D. Playing the game Optom Vis Dev 2007;38(1):5-6. DOWNLOAD.

Chase C, Tosha C, Borsting E, Ridder WH. Predicting accommodative insufficiency and academic problems using the Conlon Visual Discomfort Survey. Optom Vis Dev2009;40(4):239-247.DOWNLOAD.

Barnhardt, C., Borsting, E. et al. Relationship Between Visual-Motor Integration and Spatial Organization of Written Language and Math, Optometry And Vision Science Vol. 82, No. 2, pp. E138–E143. DOWNLOAD.

Borsting E, Rouse M, Shin S, Dold E, Souder A. Repeatability of the Visagraph II in the Analysis of Children’s Eye Movements During Reading. Optom Vis Dev. 2007;38(2):67-73. DOWNLOAD.

Fischer B, Hartnegg K. Saccade control in dyslexia: Development, deficits, training and transfer to reading. Optom Vis Dev 2008:39(4):181-190. DOWNLOAD.

Fischer B, Gebhardt C, Hartnegg K. Subitizing and Visual Counting in Children with Problems in Acquiring Basic Arithmetic Skills. OptomVis Dev 2008:39(1):24-29.DOWNLOAD.

Vaughn, W. Maples W.C. et al. The association between vision quality of life and academics as measured by the College of Optometrists in Vision Development Quality of Life questionnaire Optometry (2006) 77, 116-123. DOWNLOAD.

Goss DA, Downing DB, Lowther AH, Horner DG, Blemker M, Donaldson L, Malson T, Gray KH. The Effect of HTS Vision Therapy Conducted in a School Setting on Reading Skills in Third and Fourth Grade Students. Optom Vis Dev. 2007;38(1):27-32. DOWNLOAD.

Gallaway M, Boas MB. The impact of vergence and accommodative therapy on reading eye movements and reading speed. Optom Vis Dev 2007;38(3):115-120.DOWNLOAD.

Lawton T. Training Direction-Discrimination Sensitivity Remediates aWide Spectrum of Reading Skills OptomVis Dev 2007:38(1):33-47. DOWNLOAD.

Solan, H.A.Visual and Auditory Processing in Reading Disability: A Matter of Cognitive Dissonance Journal of Optometric Vision Development Volume 35 / Spring 2004. DOWNLOAD.

Harold A. Solan, H.A, Shelley-Tremblay, J. et al., Effect of Attention Therapy on Reading Comprehension J Learn Disabilities, November/December 2003; vol. 36, 6: pp. 556-563. DOWNLOAD.

Franceschini, S., Gori, S. et al., A Causal Link between Visual Spatial Attention and Reading Acquisition. Current Biology, April 2012. ABSTRACT.

Powers, M., Grisham, D., et al. Saccadic tracking skills of poor readers in high school. Optometry. 2008. 79: 228-234. DOWNLOAD.


Conlon, E.G., Sanders, M.A, Wright, C.M. Relationships between global motion and global form processing, practice,cognitive and visual processing in adults with dyslexia or visual discomfort, Neuropsychologia 47 (2009) 907–915. DOWNLOAD.

Bucci, M.P, Kapoula, Zoi, Poor binocular coordination of saccades in dyslexic children. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol (2008) 246:417–428. DOWNLOAD.

Hinkley S,Schoone E, Ondersma B. Perceptions of Elementary Teachers about Vision and Learning and Vision Therapy. J Behav Optom 22;3-9. DOWNLOAD.
Convergence insufficiency - selected studies

Alvarez, et al. Vision therapy in adults with convergence insufficiency: clinical and functional magnetic resonance imaging measures. Optometry and Vision Science. 2010; 87(12): E985-E1002. DOWNLOAD.

Ciuffreda KJ. The scientific basis for and efficacy of optometric vision therapy in nonstrabismic accommodative and vergence disorders. Optometry 2002;73:735-62. DOWNLOAD.

Scheiman et al. Randomized clinical trial of treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2008; 126(10):1336-1349. DOWNLOAD.PRESS RELEASE.

Scheiman et al. Long-term effectiveness of treatments for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children. Optometry and Vision Science. 2009; 86(9): 1096-1103. DOWNLOAD.

Scheiman et al. Vision therapy/orthoptics for symptomatic convergence insufficiency in children: treatment kinetics. Optometry and Vision Science. 2010; 87(8): 593-603. DOWNLOAD.

Scheiman et al. Treatment of accomodative dysfunction in children: results from a randomized clinical trial . Optometry and Vision Science. 2011; 88(11). ABSTRACT.

Scheiman at al. A randomized clinical trial of vision therapy/orthoptics versus pencil pushups for the treatment of ocnvergence insufficiency in young adults. Optometry and Vision Science. 2005; 82(7): E585-595. DOWNLOAD.

Borsting E. et al. Improvement in Academic Behaviors After Successful Treatment of Convergence Insufficiency Optometry & Vision Science. January 2012 - Volume 89 - Issue 1 - pp 12-18. ABSTRACT.

Gallaway M, Boas MB. The impact of vergence and accommodative therapy on reading eye movements and reading speed. Optom Vis Dev 2007;38(3):115-120. DOWNLOAD.

Dusek WA, Pierscionek BK, McClelland JF. An evaluation of clinical treatment of convergence insufficiency for children with reading difficulties. BMC Ophthalmol. 2011 Aug 11;11:21. Full text.

Adler P. Efficacy of treatment for convergence insufficiency using vision therapy. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 2002 Nov;22(6):565-71. ABSTRACT.

Scheiman M, Cooper J, Mitchell GL, de LP, Cotter S, Borsting E, London R, Rouse M. A survey of treatment modalities for convergence insufficiency. Optom Vis Sci. 2002 Mar;79(3):151-7. DOWNLOAD.

Birnbaum MH, Soden R, Cohen AH. Efficacy of vision therapy for convergence insufficiency in an adult male population. J Am Optom Assoc. 1999 Apr;70(4):225-32. ABSTRACT.

Grisham JD. Visual therapy results for convergence insufficiency: a literature review. Am J Optom Physiol Opt. 1988 Jun;65(6):448-54. Review. ABSTRACT.
Brain injury - slected studies

Brodak, M.I. Pediatric acquired brain injury. Optometry 2010 81: 516-527. DOWNLOAD.

Green, W., Ciuffreda, K.L., et al. Accomodation in mild traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 2010. 47: 183-200. DOWNLOAD.

Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam DP, Kapoor N. Clinical oculomotor training in traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):16-23. DOWNLOAD.

Cockerham, G.C., Goodrich, G.L., et al. Eye and visual function in traumatic brain injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development. 2009. 46: 811-818. DOWNLOAD.

Julie L., Julie, B-T, et al. Deficits in complex visual information processing after mild TBI: Electrophysiological markers and vocational outcome prognosis Brain Injury.March 2008; 22(3): 265–274. DOWNLOAD.

Stanley, Paul. Effects of computer assisted visual scanning training on visual neglect: three case studies. Physical & Occupational Therapy in Geriatrics,1996 Vol. 14(2) 33-44. DOWNLOAD.

Sharieff K. From braille to quilting: a neuro-optometric rehabilitation case report. Optom Vis Dev 2010;41(2):81-91. DOWNLOAD.

Schlageter, K. Gray, B. Incidence and treatment of visual dysfunctoin in traumatic brin injury. Brain Injury. 1993, 7:439-448. Download.

Brosseau-Lachaine, O. Gagnon, I. et al. Mild traumatic brain injury induces prolonged visual processing deficits in children. Brain Injury.August 2008; 22(9): 657–668. DOWNLOAD.

Leslie S. Myopia and accommodative insufficiency associated with moderate head trauma. Opt Vis Dev 2009;40(1):25-31.DOWNLOAD.

Gottlieb, D.D., Fuhr, A., et al. Neuro-optometric facilitation of vision recovery after acquired brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 1998. 11: 175-199. DOWNLOAD.

Mandese M. Oculo-visual evaluation of the patient with traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Dev. 2009;40(1):37-44. DOWNLOAD.

Raymond, M.J., et al. Rehabilitation of visual processing deficits following brain injury. NeuroRehabilitation. 1996. 6: 229-240. DOWNLOAD.

Proctor A. Traumatic brain injury and binasal occlusion. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):45-50.DOWNLOAD.

Tong D, Zink C. Vision dysfunctions secondary to motor vehicle accident: a case report. Optom Vis Dev 2010;41(3)158-168. DOWNLOAD.

Tassinari JT. Vision Therapy for sensory fusion disruption syndrome: two case reports. Optom Vis Dev 2010;41(4):215-221.DOWNLOAD.

Hellerstein L.F., Freed S., Maples, W.C., Vision profile of patients with mild brain injury. J Am Optom Assoc. 1995; 66: 634-39. DOWNLOAD.

Freed, S. Hellerstein, LF, Visual electrodiagnostic findings in mild traumatic brain injury, Brain Injury. 1997, VOL. 11, NO. 1, 25-36. DOWNLOAD.

Rowe, F. Visual perceptual consequences of stroke. Strabismus. 2009 Jan-Mar;17(1):24-8. DOWNLOAD.

Han, E., The role of the neuro-rehabilitation optometrist. DOWNLOAD

Suchoff, I., Gianutosos, R., Rehabilitative optometric interventions for the adult with acquired brain injury. DOWNLOAD.

COVDCOVD Research summary on vision, learning and reading


COVDCOVD Research Summary 1
Completed in July, 2009, this paper presents over 350 abstracts from 77 journals

COVDCOVD Research Summary 2
Completed in October, 2010, this paper presents 35 additional abstracts.


COVDCOVD Research Summary 3
Completed in October, 2011, this paper presents 65 additional abstracts.


COVDBrain Injury
Vision rehabilitaiton following a traumatic brain injury has been extensively studied. 

Click here for over 110 references to scientific studies on visual dysfunction, brain injury and vision therapy rehabilitation.

Vision Related Literature on Acquired Brain Injury

Updated March 2013
Compiled by Lynn Fishman Hellerstein, OD, FCOVD, FAAO

  1. Aksionoff EB, Falk NS. The differential diagnosis of perceptual deficits in traumatic brain injury patients. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63:554-8.
  2. Aksionoff EB, Falk NS. Optometric therapy for the left brain injured patient. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63:564-8.
  3. Alesterlund L, Maino D. That the blind may see: A review: Blindsight and its implications for optometrists. J Optom Vis Dev 1999;30(2):86-93
  4. Anderson DC et al. The dizzy patient: a review of etiology, differential diagnosis, and management. J Am Optom Assoc 1995;66:545-558.
  5. Chokron, S., Perez, C., Obadia, M., Gaudry, I., Laloum, L., Gout, O., From blindsight to sight: cognitive rehabilitation of visual field defects, Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience 2008;26, 305.
  6. Ciuffreda KJ. The efficacy of and scientific basis for vision therapy in non-strabismic accommodative and convergence disorders. Optometry 2002;73:735-762.
  7. Ciuffreda KJ, Han Y, Kapoor, Ficarra AP. Oculomotor rehabilitation for reading in acquired brain injury. NeuroRehabil 2006;21(1):9-21.
  8. Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N, Han Y. Reading-related ocular motor deficits in traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj/Professional 2005;2:16-20.
  9. Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N, Rutner D, Suchoff IB, et al. Occurrence of oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury: A retrospective analysis. J Am Optom Assn 2007;78:155-161.
  10. Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam, Kapoor N. Conceptual Model of Optometric Vision Care in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Behav Optom 22;10-12.
  11. Ciuffreda KJ, Ludlam, Kapoor N. Clinical oculomotor training in traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):16-23.
  12. Ciuffreda KJ, Rutner R, Kapoor N, Suchoff IB. Vision therapy for oculomotor dysfunctions in acquired brain injury. Optometry-J Am Optom Assn 2008;79:18-22.
  13. Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB, Marrone MA, et al. Oculomotor rehabilitation in traumatic brain-injured patients. J Behav Optom 1996;7:31-8.
  14. Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB, Kapoor N, et al. Normal vision function. In: Downey & Darling’s Physiological Basis of Rehabilitation Medicine, 3rd ed. Gonzalez EG, Myers SJ, Edelstein JE, et al., eds. Boston: Butterworth–Heinemann, 2001;241-61.
  15. Ciuffreda, K. J., and Tannen, B., Eye Movement Basics for the Clinician, Mosby, St. Louis, MO, 1995.
  16. Cohen AH. Optometric management of binocular dysfunctions secondary to head trauma: case reports. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63:569-75.
  17. Cohen AH, Rein LD. The effect of head trauma on the visual system: the doctor of optometry as a member of the rehabilitation team. J Am Optom Assoc 1992:63;530-6.
  18. Cohen AH. Acquired visual information-processing disorders: Closed head trauma. In: Press LJ, ed. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997:154-67.
  19. Cohen AH. Optometric rehabilitative therapy. In: Press LJ, ed. Applied Concepts in Vision Therapy. St. Louis: Mosby. 1997:278-86.
  20. Cohen AH. The role of optometry in the management of vestibular disorders. Brain Injury/Professional 2005;2:8-10.
  21. Cohen AH. Management of patients with hemianopic visual field loss. J College of Optom in Vision Dev 2003;34: 111-18.
  22. Cooper J. Deflating the rubber duck. J Behav Opt 1998;9(5):115-119.
  23. Craig S, Kapoor N, et al. Profile of Selected Aspects of Visually Symptomatic Individuals With Acquired Brain Injury: A Retrospective Study. J Behav Optom 2008;19:1-10.
  24. Du T, Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N. Elevated dark adaptation in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury 2005 ;19(13):1125-38.
  25. Falk, Naomi S. and Aksionoff, Elizabeth B. , The Primary Care Optometric Evaluation of theTraumatic Brain injury Patient J Am Optom Assoc 8/92;63(8),
  26. Fox RS. The rehabilitation of vergence and accommodative dysfunctions in traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury/Professional 2005;2:12-15.
  27. Gianutsos R, Ramsey G. Enabling rehabilitation optometrists to help survivors of acquired brain injury. J Vis Rehabil 1988;2(1):37-58.
  28. Gianutsos R, Suchoff IB. Neuropsychological consequences of mild brain injury and optometric implications. J Behav Optom 1998;9(1):3-6.
  29. Gianutsos R, Suchoff IB. Visual fields after brain injury: management issues for the occupational therapist. In: Scheiman M, ed. Understanding and Managing Vision Defects-A Guide for Occupation Therapists,2nd edition. Thorofare, N.J.: Slack, 2002:248-62.
  30. Goodrich L, Kirby J, et al. Visual Function in Patients of a Polytrauma Rehabilitation Center: A descriptive Study. J of Rehabilitation Research and Development November 2007: 44: 929-936.
  31. Gottlieb DD, Freeman P, Williams M. Clinical research and statistical analysis of a visual field awareness system. J Am Optom Assoc 1992;63:581-8.
  32. Gottleib DD, Fuhr A, Hatch WV, et al. Neuro-optometric facilitation of vision recovery after acquired brain injury. Neuro-rehab 1998;11:175-99.
  33. Han Y, Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N. Reading-related oculo-motor testing and training protocols for acquired brain injury in humans. Brain Res Protoc 2004;14(1):1-12.
  34. Han, M. H., Craig, S. B., Rutner, D., Kapoor, N., Ciuffreda, K. J., Suchoff, I. B., Medications prescribed to brain injury patients: a retrospective analysis, Optom 2008; 79, 252.
  35. Harrison RJ. Loss of fusional vergence with partial loss of accommodative convergence and accommodation following head injury. Binoc Vis 1987;2(2):93-100.
  36. Hellerstein LF. Visual problems associated with brain injury. In: Scheiman M, ed. Understanding and Managing Vision Defects-A Guide for Occupational Therapists, 2nd edition.Thorofare,N.J::2002:178-85.
  37. Hellerstein LF. Visual rehabilitation for patients with brain injury. In: Scheiman M, ed. Understanding and Managing Vision Defects-A Guide for Occupational Therapists, 2nd edition.Thorofare,N.J::2002.
  38. Hellerstein LF, Fishman BI. Vision therapy and occupational therapy: An integrated approach. J Behav Optom 1990;1(5):122-126.
  39. Hellerstein LF, Fishman BI. Collaboration between occupational therapists and optometrists. OT Pract 6/99;22-30.
  40. Hellerstein LF, Freed S. Rehabilitative optometric management of a traumatic brain injury patient. J Behav Optom 1994;5(6):143-8.
  41. Hellerstein LF, Freed S, Maples WC. Vision profile of patients with mild brain injury. J Am Optom Assoc 1995;66:634-9.
  42. Heitger MH et al. Eye movement and visuomotor arm movement deficits following mild closed head injury. Brain 2004;127(3):575-590.
  43. Herdman SJ. Patients with vestibular disorders, part II. Postgraduate advances in Physical Therapy, APTA 1987:1-16.
  44. Hillier CG. Vision rehabilitation following acquired brain injury: a case series. Brain Injury/Professional 2005; 2:30-32.
  45. Hinrichs CA. Vision rehabilitation for the multiply challenged child. J Optom Vis Devel 6/92;23(2): 9-13.
  46. Jackowski MM, Sturr JF, Taub HA, Turk MA. Photophobia in patients with traumatic brain injury: uses of light-filtering lenses to enhance contrast sensitivity and reading rate. Neuro-rehab 1996;6:193-202.
  47. Jackowski MM, Sturr JF, Turk MA, Friedman DI. Clinical indications of altered peripheral field function in patients with traumatic brain injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1999;40 (4):32 (supplement).
  48. Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ. Vision disturbances following traumatic brain injury. Current Treatm Options in Neurol 2002;4:271-280
  49. Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Suchoff IB. Egocentric localization in patients with visual neglect. In: Suchoff IB, Ciuffreda KJ, Kapoor N, eds. Visual and Vestibular Consequences of Acquired Brain Injury. Santa Ana, CA: Optometric Extension Program, 2001:131-144.
  50. Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ, Han,Y. Oculomotor rehabilitation in acquired brain injury: A case series. Arch Phys Med Rehab 2005;1667-78.
  51. Kapoor N, Ciuffreda KJ. Vision problems. In: Silver JM, McAllister TW, Yudofsky SC, eds. Textbook of traumatic brain injury. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing,Inc,2005:405-15.
  52. Katz RT, Golden RS, Butter J, Tepper, Rothke S, Holmes J. Driving safety after brain damage: follow-up of twenty-two patients with matched controls. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2/90;71:133-137.
  53. Lachapelle, J., Bolduc-Teasdale, J., Ptito, A., McKerral, M., Deficits in complex visual information processing after mild TBI: electrophysiological markers and vocational outcome prognosis, Brain Inj, 2008;22, 265.
  54. Leslie S. Myopia and accommodative insufficiency associated with moderate head trauma. Optom Vis Dev 2009;40(1):25-31.
  55. Ludlam WM. Rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury with associated visual dysfunction—a case report. Neuro-rehabilitation 1996;6:183-92.
  56. Maino DM. Diagnosis and management of special populations. Mosby, St. Louis 1995.
  57. Maino D. Neuroplasticity: Teaching an old brain new tricks. Rev Optom, 2009; 46(1):62-64,66-70.
  58. Mandese M. Oculo-visual evaluation of the patient with traumatic brain injury. Optom Vis Dev. 2009;40(1)L37-44.
  59. Margolis, N. W., and Suter, P. S., Visual field defects and unilateral spatial inattention: diagnosis and treatment, J Behav Optom 2006;(17) 31.
  60. McCabe, Patricia, M.P.N., P.T., and Bergman, Susan Biener, M. D., Vision Rehabilitation for Physiatry Residents: A Model Curriculum. Am J of Phys Med and Rehab, Vol. 78, No. 4, 389-391, July/August 1999.
  61. McKenna, K., Cooke, D.M., Fleming, J., Jefferson, A., and Ogden, S., The incidence of visual perceptual impairment in patients with severe traumatic brain injury, Brain In 2006;(20) 507.
  62. Mosimann UP, Muri RM, Felblinger J, Radanov BP. Saccadic eye movement disturbances in whiplash patients with persistent complaints. Brain 2000; 123(4):828-835.
  63. Nelms AC. New visions—collaboration between OTs and optometrists can make a difference in treating brain injury. OT Practice 7/17 & 31/2000;31:15-8.
  64. Padula WV. A Behavioral Vision Approach for Persons with Physical Disabilities. Optom Exten Prog. 1988.
  65. Padula WV. Neuro-optometric Rehabilitation for Persons with a TBI or CVA. J Optom Vis Develop. 6/92;(23)4-8.
  66. Padula W. Visual evoked potentials (VEP) evaluating treatment for post-trauma vision syndrome (PTVS) in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI). Brain Inj 1994;8:125-33.
  67. Padula WV, Argyris S, Ray J., Visual evoked potentials (VEP) evaluating treatment for post-trauma vision syndrome (PTVS) in patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI), Brain Inj. 1994;(8)125.
  68. Padula WV, Politzer T, Simmons-Grab, etal. Visual Dysfunction Following a Neurological Event. J Rehab Prof 1-3/2001.
  69. Padula WV, Shapiro JB, Jasin P. Head injury causing post trauma vision syndrome. N Engl J Optom 1988;41(2):16-21.
  70. Padula WV, Shapiro JB, Jasin P. Head Injury Causing Post Trauma Vision Syndrome. N Engl J Optom, 12/88;17-20.
  71. Padula WV, Susan G. Post Trauma Vision Syndrome: Part I. Inside View Newsletter, The Centre for Neuro Skills, Issue 8.3, ISSN# 1065-7320, Summer 1999, 1-3.
  72. Padula WV, Susan G. Post Trauma Vision Syndrome: Part II. Inside View Newsletter, The Centre for Neuro Skills, Issue 8.4, ISSN# 1065-7320, Fall 1999. 1-3.
  73. Park E, Bell JD, Baker AJ. Traumatic brain injury; Can the consequences be stopped? Canadian Med Assoc J 2008; 178(9:1163-70.
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Evidence on the efficacy of optometric vision therapy