Esotropia, commonly called crossed eyes, is the visual condition in which a person uses only one eye to look at an object while the other eye turns inward. Esotropia is one of several types of Strabismus, which is the condition of eye turns or deviating eyes. Esotropia is the most common type of Strabismus, occurring in approximately 1-2% of the population. Eye coordination may not be developed enough to provide normal control of the person's binocular vision.

Functional treatment and cosmetic treatment

Treatment for esotropia should be both cosmetic (making the eyes look more straight) and functional (making the eyes function properly as a team - this is called binocular vision).

Our two eyes work together as a binocular system. When our two eyes work together well, we can easily and efficiently measure the location of objects in relation to ourselves. Binocular vision makes it easier for us to ride a bicycle, drive a car, or direct many other daily activities.

An eye that wanders is much more than just an appearance problem. For example, reading demands accurate binocular vision. When a person's eyes do not aim at the same place accurately and simultaneously, he or she will have much more difficulty with large amounts of reading, writing, and other close work.

Treatment of Esotropia

Treatments involve the use of lenses and vision therapy. Sometimes surgery is required. Patching one eye may also make the person more aware of the eye that is misused. Our doctors thoroughly evaluate this condition and provide treatment options, including non-surgical vision therapy or surgery if it is warranted.



The most famous vision therapy patient is neuroscientist, Susan Barry, who had strabismus.

"Today, a relatively small group of optometrists still practice and continue to perfect optometric vision therapy techniques.  Yet, it is difficult for a strabismic patient to learn about, much less access, this type of clinician."

Dr. Susan Barry, 2010 Journal of the American Optometric Association 


Susan Barry on Vision therapy.

Neuroscientist (and adult vision therapy success story) Dr. Susan Barry gives a TED Talk about strabismus, depth perception and vision therapy: